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Information regarding an area exposed to an avalanche. Mapped based on analysis of the terrain and of signs that avalanches leave in their path, mainly, in forests. In Avalanche Zones, avalanches occur frequently and are of different sizes. Avalanche Zones have been systematically mapped throughout the region. They are shown in orange. There are two types of Avalanche Zones: zones where avalanches usually follow the same path, shown in orange, and zones where avalanches usually follow different paths, shown in pale orange.
Information regarding an avalanche observed recently. Mapped based on direct observation of the event or observation following it. The information is obtained based on the nivometeorological observation network, rescue groups, countryside wardens, mountain guides, and ski and mountain resort personnel. In the event of important episodes and accidents the IGC technicians also gather information. The elements mapped mainly include the extent to which avalanches affect populated areas, roads, ski resorts and people who carry out mountain activities. Data began to be gathered in 1986. It is shown in blue.
The Preliminary studies of geological hazards are executed by specific order of the General Direcció d'Urbanisme. The aim of this study is to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the natural geologic hazard to determine if in the studied scope, indications of geologic processes exist that could cause risk situations. The studies are focused on the hazards of natural origin related to: - Movements of the land (slope movements and collapses). - Floodings. - Cones of deyección and erosive processes associated with rock falls and landslides - Vulnerable water-bearing of special interest for the urban consumption. - Avalanches. The estimation of the natural hazard is based on the magnitude and the degree of activity of the associated geomorphological phenomena to the slope dynamics, fluvial and torrential. From these parameters, the following degrees of natural danger are determined: - Very low hazard: Zones where a exhibition to active phenomena has been detected (without defined hazard). - Low hazard: Set out zones to phenomena of low activity and from medium-sized to small magnitude. - Average hazard: Zones with phenomena of medium-sized frequency and magnitude. - High hazard: Zones with phenomena of high fequency and medium-high magnitude. From this evaluation of the geologic hazard of the territory two types of situations are distinguished: - Areas in which the accomplishment of additional studies of geologic hazard is recommended. Usually, they correspond to scopes from Very Low to Low hazard, generally, is not necessary to realise other studies that pertinent the geotechnical information for the construction of the different structures. - Areas where the accomplishment of additional studies is recommended. Normally, they correspond to areas which contain scopes from medium to high hazards. In these areas, like general criterion, before realising any city-planning action, is recommended to carry out detailed studies, previous studies to the definition of the uses of the ground that can be compatible, that in detail evaluates certain aspects of the geologic hazard and its possible effects on the planned action.
: Information regarding an avalanche observed in the past. Mapped based on a survey of inhabitants of the area where the phenomenon took place. The boundaries shown are based on the explanations given by the witnesses consulted. Information is usually taken from Avalanche Zones close to inhabited areas where avalanches have historically interfered with human activity. For this reason the majority of the information is found around these zones. They are shown in purple. Cartography often maps only the avalanche arrival zone, as the descriptions usually refer to their extent and the damage caused.
Inventory of defence structures built to reduce the risk of avalanches. Single and lineal structures are documented, such as artificial avalanche release systems, road barriers, breakers, deflection structures, retention nets, screens, wind baffles, deflectors, rigid and flexible barriers, retention walls, reforestation and controlled areas.